Arrowhead Family (Alismataceae)

Common Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia)

Arum Family (Araceae)

Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)

Woodland Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema atrorubens)

Swamp Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)

Bedstraw Family

Bluets (Houstonia)

Rough Bedstraw (Galium asprellum)

Buckwheat Family (Polygonaceae)

Bitter or Broad-leaved Dock (Rumex obtusifolius)

Sheep Sorrel or Common Sorrel (Rumex acetosella)

Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae)

Wood Anemone (Anemone quinquefolia)

Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)

Tall Buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens)

Tall Meadow Rue (Thalictrum polygamum)

Timbleweed or Tall Anemone (Anemone virginiana)

Cattail Family (Typhaceae)

Common Cattail (Typha latifolia)

Narrow-leaved Cattail (Typha angustifolia)

Composite Family (Compositae)

Golden Ragwort (Senecia aureus)

Yarrow or Milfoil (Achillea millefolium)

Tall Rattlesnake Root or Gall-of-the-earth (Prenanthes trifoliata)

Eastern Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium dubium)

Field Hawkweed or King Devil (Hieracium pratense)

Common Burdock (Arctium minus)

Ox-eye Daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum)

Daisy Fleabane (Erigeron annuus)

Early Goldenrod (Solidago juncea)

Lance-leaved or Grass-leaved Goldenrod (Solidago graminifolia)

White Wood Aster (Aster divaricatus)

Boneset or Thoroughwort (Eupatorium perfoliatum)

Wild Lettuce (Latuca canadensis)

Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae)

Spreading Dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium)

Evening Primrose Family (Onagraceae)

Enchanter’s Nightshade (Circaea quadrisulcata)

Geranium Family (Geraniaceae)

Herb Robert (Geranium robertianum)

Iris Family (Iridaceae)

Larger Blue Flag (Iris versicolor)

Blue-eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium)

Lily Family (Liliaceae)

Wild Lily-of-the-valley or Canada Mayflower (Maianthemum canadense)

False Solomon’s Seal or Wild Spikenard (Smilacina racemosa)

Star-flowered Solomon’s Seal (Smilacina stellata)

Hairy Solomon’s Seal (Polygonatum pubescens)

Wood Lily (Lilium philadelphicum)

Loosestrife Family (Lythraceae)

Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

Milkweed Family (Asclepiadaceae)

Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)

Mint Family (Labiatae)

Mad-dog Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora)

Mustard Family (Cruciferae)

Pennsylvania Bitter Cress (Cardamine pensylvanica)

Nettle Family (Urticaceae)

False Nettle or Bog-Hemp (Boehmeria cylindrica)

Orchid Family (Orchidaceae)

Pink Lady’s Slipper or Moccasin Flower (Cypripedium acaule)

Parsley Family (Umbelliferae)

Water Hemlock or Spotted Cowbane (Cicuta maculata)

Pea Family (Leguminosae)

Dyer’s Greenweed (Genista tinctoria)

Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)

White Clover (Trifolium repens)

Showy Tick Trefoil (Desmodium canadensis)

Pink Family (Caryophyllaceae)

Bladder Campion (Silene cucubalus)

Grove Sandwort (Arenaria lateriflora)

Primose Family (Primulaceae)

Whorled Loosestrife (Lysimachia quadrifolia)

Yellow Loosestrife or Swamp Candles (Lysimachia terrestris)

Rose Family (Rosaceae)

Wild Strawberrty (Frageria)

Common Cinquefoil (Potentilla canadensis)

Dwarf Cinquefoil (Potentilla canadensis)

Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Agrimony (Agrimonia gryposepala)


St. Johnswort Family (Guttiferae)

Common St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum)

Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae)

Butter and Eggs or Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris)

Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus)

Turtlehead (Chelone glabra)

Touch-me-not Family (Balsaminaceae)

Spotted Touch-me-not or Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)

Violet Family (Violaceae)

Wintergreen Family (Pyrolaceae)

Round-leaved Pyrola (Pyrola rotundifolia)

Indian Pipe or Corpse Plant (Monotropa uniflora)

Pinesap or False Beechdrops (Montropa hypopithys)

Wood Sorrel Family (Oxalidaceae)

Yellow Wood Sorrel (Oxalis europaea)


Cashew or Sumac Family (Anacardiaceae)

Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans)

Cucumber or Gourd Family (Cucurbitaceae)

Wild Cucumber or Balsam-Apple (Echinocystis lobata)

Grape Family (Vitaceae)

Fox Grape (Vitis labrusca)

Virginia Creeper or Woodbine (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

Lily Family (Liliaceae)

Common Greenbrier or Cathbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)

Carrion Flower (Smilax herbacea)

Staff Tree Family (Celastraceae)

Asiatic Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus)

Tomato or Nightshade Family (Solanaceae)

Bittersweet Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)


Cinnamon Fern Family (Osmundaceae)

Cinnamon Fern (Osmunda cinnamomea)

Royal Fern (Osmunda regalis)

Fern Family (Polypodiaceae)

Common Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)

Common Polypody (Polypodium virginianum)

Hay-Scented Fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula)

Lady Fern (Athyrium felix-femina)

New York Fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis)

Sensitive Fern (Onoclea sensibilis)

Marsh Fern (Thelypteris thelypteroides)


Barberry Family (Berberidaceae)

Common Barberry (Berberis vulgaris)

Japanese Barberry (Berberis thunbergii)

Bayberry Family (Myricaceae)

Baynberry (Myrica pensylvanica)

Sweetfern (Comptonia peregrina)

Bedstraw Family (Rubiaceae)

Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis)

Birch Family (Betulaceae)

Speckled Alder (Alnus rugosa)

Common Alder or Brook-Side Alder (Alnus serrulata)

Buckthorn Family (Rhamnaceae)

Alder Buckthorn or Glossy Buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula)

Cashew or Sumac Family

Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra)

Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina)

Heath Family (Ericaceae)

Sheep Laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)

Low Blueberry (Vaccinium)

Highbush or Swamp Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

Clammy Azalea, Swamp Azalea, or Swamp Honeysuckle (Rhododendron viscosum)

Honeysuckle Family (Caprifoliaceae)

Bush Honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)

Arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum)

Cranberry Viburnum or Highbush-Cranberry (Viburnum trilobum)

Common Elder (Sambucus canadensis)

Pea Family (Leguminosae)

Dyer’s Greenweed (Genista tinctoria)


Rose Ramily (Rosaceae)

Purple-flowering Raspberry (Rubus odoratus)

Meadowsweet (Spiraea latifolia)

Steeplebush or Hardhack (Spiraea tomentosa)

Pasture Rose (Rosa carolina)

Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora)

Swamp Rose (Rosa palustris)

Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)


Service-Berry or Oblong-Leaf (Amelanchier canadensis)

White Alder Family (Clethraceae)

Sweet Pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia)


Beech Family (Fagaceae)

White Oak (Quercus alba)

Black Oak (Quercus velutina)

Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra)

Birch Family (Betulaceae)

Gray Birch (Betula populifolia)

Paper Birch or American White Birch (Betula papyrifera)

Black Birch (Betula lenta)

Elm Family (Ulmaceae)

American Elm (Ulmus americana)

Maple Family (Aceraceae)

Red Maple (Acer rubrum)

Pine Family (Pinaceae)

Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)

Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida)

Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana)

Plum Family (Drupaceae)

Wild Black Cherry (Prunus serotina)

Willow Family (Salicaceae)

Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

Big-Toothed Aspen (Populus grandidentata)

Black Willow (Salix nigra)

Note: Sources used for plant identification: Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide by Lawrence Newcomb; The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers Eastern Region; Dr. William A. Niering, Professor of Botany, Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut; Nancy C. Olmstead, Research Associate, Connecticut Arboretum; Peterson Field Guides – (a. Wild Flowers – Roger Tory Peterson/Margaret Mc Kenny) and (b. Trees and Shrubs – George A. Petrides)

General Observation on Salem Woods *

By Jeanne Stella

Salem Woods, located in the southern portion of the city of Salem, Massachusetts, consists of 160 acres of rocky, hilly terrain. Habitats are numerous and varied, ranging from swamps and marshes to open, dry areas. This is primarily a deciduous woods comprised of Oaks, Red Maples, Birches, and Quaking Aspens. The conifers growing here are limited to Eastern Red Cedar, Eastern White Pine, and Pitch Pine. Except in the very open and dry areas, vines flourish throughout the woods – notably Bittersweet (which is rapidly overgrowing much of the other vegetation) and Poison Ivy. Brambles thrive here as well, scattered throughout, and these consist of Blackberries, Raspberries, and Roses. Other thorny plants include Common Greenbrier (a climbing vine that grows in thickets) and Barberry. Noteable among shrubs are Alders, Crabapples, and Chokecherries. Other plants occurring with frequency include mosses and Canada Mayflower (ground covers), Ferns, Whorled Loosestrife, Rattlesnake Root, Jack-in-the-pulpit, Wood Anemone, and Jewelweed. From the large presence of acid-loving plants, I would conclude that the soil is primarily acid.

* Salem Woods is known technically as Highland Park.



Copyright August 2000 by Jeanne Stella.

Note: Jeanne Stella is an amateur botanist, and the Plant Consultant for the Friends of Salem Woods, Salem, Massachusetts.